Fog-harvesting for water - clouds on tap
The Namib fog beetle is a feisty little creature. Every morning he makes an
arduous journey to the top of a sand dune, where he turns his body into the
wind, straightens out his rear legs and lowers his head. The fog rolling in from
the sea gradually collects on his back, forming droplets of water, which glide
downwards and hang from the insect's mouthparts. In this way, the Onymacris
unguicularis is always assured of a healthy morning drink, despite being miles
from the nearest fresh water.
Previous experiments have shown that other sites in South African could yield
more than four times the volumes of water recorded at Tshanowa.
It's an innovative solution to the problem of water shortage - one that
researchers have been quick to latch onto, but which many countries have been
surprisingly slow to implement.
Professor Jana Olivier of the University of South Africa's Department of
Anthropology, Archaeology, Geography and Environmental Studies, explains that
the idea of harnessing fog as a source of drinking water has been studied for
"The first experiments were conducted in 1901, on Table Mountain. But it
was only in 1987, in the arid coastal desert of northern Chile, that it was
implemented on a large scale."
For years the remote fishing village of Chungungo relied solely on trucked-in
water. In 1987 it was transformed by the installation of a fog collecting
system. With a dependable and affordable water supply, not only did the growing
population have domestic water, they were also able to cultivate commercial
crops and plant trees.
Although unconventional, the technology behind fog collection is amazingly
simple: massive vertical shade nets are erected in high-lying areas close to
water-short communities. As fog blows through these structures, tiny water
droplets are deposited onto the net. As the droplets become larger, they run
down the net into gutters attached at the bottom. From there, water is channeled
into reservoirs, and then to individual homes.
In Chungungo, this system saw water flowing from local taps for the first
time ever, in 1992, providing more than 40l of water per person, per day.
Like Chile, South Africa is an arid country in which large sections of the
population have inadequate water supply. Only 35 per cent of the country gets
more than 500mm of annual rain, and - with few unpolluted surface water sources,
many contaminated ground water supplies and water tables that drop out of reach
during drought - the advantages of an effective alternative water source are
Professor Olivier, who has been involved in fog collection research since
1995, says the potential for fog collection in South Africa is clearly shown by
what has already been achieved at two fully operational sites - one in the
Limpopo Province and the other on the West Coast.
Water for Thought
Tshanowa Junior Primary School in Limpopo is frequently shrouded in dense
mist and rain, but the nearest water sources are a non-perennial spring located
2km away, and a dam, 5km away. Since most water sources in the province are
contaminated, the quality of the dam water is suspect. The 130 school children
rely on what water they can carry with them to school each day.
The school is located at the crest of one of the easternmost promontories of
the Soutpansberg, at 1 004m above sea level. Despite its relatively low
elevation, this region is ideal for fog collection in that moist maritime air
from the Indian Ocean moves over the escarpment and against the mountains during
the night and early morning. This cloudiness sometimes persists throughout the
Permission was obtained from the relevant local and tribal leaders to erect a
fog water collection system on vacant land adjacent to the school. Construction
commenced in 1999 and local inhabitants were employed to assist.
Each fog collector consists of three 6m-high wooden poles, mounted 9m apart.
Steel cables stretch horizontally between the poles, and from each pole to the
ground. A double layer of 30 per cent shade cloth is draped over the cables, and
fixed to the poles on each side. Water dripping from the net into the gutter
runs through a sand filter and is then emptied into a tipping bucket. From
there, it flows into a 10kl storage tank further down the slope. Two additional
tanks were erected at the school to collect the overflow from the first. An
automatic weather station was also installed to record rainfall, wind speed and
Within four days of completion, school children and members of the local
community were drinking water collected by the fog screen. Although weather
conditions have made accurate data collection difficult, daily yields of as much
as 3 800 l of rain and fog combined, have been recorded. The average collection
rate from March 1999 to April 2001 is over 2,5 l per square metre of fog screen.
The giant fog screens at Tshanowa Junior Primary School in Limpopo province
are providing pupils and members of the community an average of between 150l and
250l of water per day.
Heavy clouds, no rain
The same system was also set up at Lepelfontein, a small missionary station
about 400km from Cape Town, and about 5km inland of the West Coast. Although
ground water here is abundant, it is of such bad quality that it is considered a
health risk. A small solar distillation plant was installed in 1998 to provide
limited drinking water, but most water is still transported to the village from
The fog screens were installed in 1999, and the overflow from one of the 10
kl tanks is now being used to supplement the water from the desalination plant.
At least 80 per cent of the water collected at this site is from fog alone, as
the region receives very little rain. Fog conditions are mostly associated with
onshore breezes originating either from the South Atlantic anticyclone to the
south of the continent, or from north westerly and westerly winds on the
northern perimeter of a coastal low.
Again, daily yields of over 3 000 l have been recorded, with a daily average
of about 5 l of water collected per square metre of fog screen.
While Lepelfontein's water initially showed high levels of sodium - possibly
due to the proximity of the ocean and wind-blown spray - Professor Olivier says
that water quality at both sites is good, with no disease-forming organisms
present in samples.
"In fact, at Tshanowa, water was rated as Class 0 - ideal quality,"
she says. "Since the water is used for drinking purposes, quality is tested
regularly." She adds that experiments conducted at other high elevation
sites around the country have yielded more than 10 l per square meter of
collecting surface per day. "This shows that in terms of quality and
magnitude of yield, fog harvesting could go a long way to alleviating water
shortage problems in the fog-prone mountainous regions of the country. "The
costs are low, the technology is simple and the source is sustainable for
hundreds, even thousands of years."
Where fog harvesting could work in Southern Africa
- For fog collection to be effective, the site must be in an area where fog
occurs frequently throughout the year, and lasts for a few hours at a time.
The water content of the fog should be high, and the fog must be accompanied
by wind to ensure that a large enough volume of moist air is blown through
the collecting screens.
- South African Weather Bureau records show that a number of places in South
Africa have over 90 days of fog per annum. These are mostly located along
the West Coast of southern Africa and in mountainous regions.
- Rain clouds have the highest water content, followed by advection sea fog.
Radiation fog has too little water to be successfully collected.
- Ideally, sites should also be more than 1 000m above sea level. Sites in
many parts of South African have elevations of more than 2 000m, and
according to previous experiments, these sites could yield more than four
times the volumes recorded at Tshanowa in the Soutpansberg.
An age-old practice
In ancient times, fog water was often collected for domestic and agricultural
- The inhabitants of what is now Israel used to build small, low, circular
honeycombed walls around their vines, so that the mist and dew could
precipitate in the immediate vicinity of the plants.
- Historically, in the Atacama, both dew and fog were collected by means of
a pile of stones, arranged so that the condensation would drip to the inside
of the base of the pile, where it was shielded from the day's sunshine. The
same technique was employed in Egypt, with the collected water stored
underground in aqueducts.
- In Gibraltar, a similar technique is used: a large area on the slope of
the rock has been covered with cement blocks. Fog and rainwater runs
downwards and is collected underground where evaporation is minimised.
- On a smaller scale, rain, fog and dew are collected on enormous granite
rocks at Cape Columbine lighthouse, on the West Coast. Low retaining walls
have been cemented onto the sloping rock surface to channel the water into a
reservoir at the base of the outcrop.
- The first fog collection installation in South Africa - prior to the
Chilean project - was at Mariepskop in Mpumalanga, in 1969/70. It was used
as an interim measure to supply water to the South African Air Force
personnel manning the Mariepskop radar station. Two large fog screens,
constructed from plastic mesh and measuring about 28m x 3,5 m each, were
erected at right angles to each other and to the fog and cloud-bearing
winds. These yielded more than 11 l of water per square meter of collecting
surface, per day. Unfortunately, the project was terminated once an
alternative water source was found.